Impact of OBF on Credentials

Part one of this two-part annotated bibliography offers an overview of literature published since 2014 on the impacts of Outcomes-Based Funding (OBF) policies on credential production and attainment. The literature is presented in a dynamic table that allows users to filter and sort across areas of interest – student outcomes, year of study, state sample, phase of research, and other research design components.


Please note that some studies may not be relevant to current OBF policies given that many states have updated their policies since the studies were conducted.  For example, Indiana, Ohio and Tennessee have each updated their OBF formulas at least once since 2009.



Ø – No significant effect

↑ – Significant positive effect

↓ – Significant negative effect

⇄ – Mixed effects: a mix of significant positive and negative findings and/or null findings

Treatment Sample
Years Studied
Select Findings (compared to non-OBF states)

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